Featured: What’s Up With Ferrari’s Forgotten All-Wheel-Drive Supercar?

What’s Up With Ferrari’s Forgotten All-Wheel-Drive Supercar?

By Michael Banovsky
November 30, 2015

It was the ’80s.

With Lotus already lending its talents to consulting gigs, Ferrari followed suit and founded an internal division, Ferrari Engineering, in order to explore new construction methods and technologies that could be applied to future vehicles. Heading the division was the legendary engineer Mauro Forghieri, who, as technical director of Ferrari’s Formula 1 team, had helped to secure four World Driver’s Championships and eight Constructor’s Championships.

That on-track success was in the ’70s. In the ’80s, the great Italian team was struggling in the big show, and with an organization as integrated between road and race car divisions, engineering talent was shuffled constantly in order to improve on-track results. When it became clear that the FIA rulebook would never allow four-wheel-drive race cars, Forghieri’s progressively-minded talents were applied to develop the next generation of Ferrari road cars.

Two often overlooked prototypes from that period—one red, one yellow—were built. They look pretty cool, right?

Interestingly, the 408 4RM was a feat that Modena has yet to replicate: a mid-engined sports car with four-wheel-drive. The company’s modern-day FF grand tourer has its engine in the front, of course, but this sports car is more like an Audi R8 that arrived on the scene 30 years earlier. But to say this car wasn’t significant to Ferrari is to forget that its current four-wheel-drive system is called…4RM, or 4 Ruote Motrici.

Many observers say that the 1987 4RM looks like inspiration for the NSX, Honda’s revolutionary aluminium-intensive supercar. If you subscribe to this narrative, the lightweight, well-built, (4RM inspired?) NSX is what shocked Ferrari into building better sports cars—as if it didn’t already have the resources to do so. A crazier idea: maybe the 4RM shows that Ferrari was actually taking a page from Nissan.

Let’s not forget that four-wheel-drive and sports cars were novel through the ’80s, and very few automakers had the resources and competition commitments to make developing such a machine worthwhile. The list of sports cars with that layout in 1985 is short and sweet: the Ford RS200 and Lancia Delta S4.

So when Nissan unveiled the seemingly production-ready MID4 concept at the 1985 Frankfurt Motor Show, it’s plausible that Ferrari realized it may soon have a true all-weather competitor to its 328, a sports car that left Maranello with just 270 horsepower. The first MID4 prototypes were making 245 horsepower from a normally-aspirated V6 engine, and featured four-wheel-drive, four-wheel-steering, ABS brakes, fully-independent suspension, and build quality that signalled the company was serious about the project. Upgraded to 330 horsepower in 1987, and slightly restyled in time for the 1988 Tokyo Motor Show, the MID4 II was as far as Nissan would get before realizing the project would likely not make them any money…

What if Ferrari worked to cover off Nissan’s potential competitor at the lower end of the market with these little-known, tech-heavy 4RM prototypes?

The first 4RM had a steel chassis and a 328-derived 4.0-litre V8 engine that sat longitudinally (north/south) and offset from the car’s centre line to accommodate the hydraulic four-wheel-drive system.

The second car—the yellow one—had an all-aluminum chassis co-developed with Canada’s Alcan, which was mostly bonded with adhesives. Yes, that’s what Lotus would claim as its innovation upon the Elise’s introduction in 1994, although both Ferrari’s engineering department and the little-known Treser TR1 were using the technology in 1987.

In any event, the Carrozzeria Scaglietti-built 4RM would never reach production—the closest it got was as the Road & Track cover car in December 1988. Or was it?

As development on the 4RM drew to a close, Forghieri was poached by Lee Iacocca to lead Lamborghini’s engineering efforts. In the record books, his work is said to have influenced the company’s tough Formula 1 effort in the late ’80s, but maybe it’s not a coincidence that the next major supercar development from that tractor-making firm was seen in 1993 when Lamborghini added all-wheel-drive to the Diablo, a tradition the company has since rolled out to all of its models—you’ll now pay extra for just two-wheel drive.

Was the 4RM, in some way, responsible for helping to prove the virtues of a mid-engined, four-wheel-drive sports car? I wouldn’t doubt it…and I wouldn’t doubt that Nissan’s MID4 played a part as well. That said, whatever the chain of events that led to the 4RM, maybe it’s time Ferrari revisited the idea of an all-weather, mid-engined sports car.

Image Sources: ferrari-collection.netdiseno-art.comferraridatabase.com

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3 years ago

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4 years ago

list of sports cars with that layout in 1985 is short and sweet: the Ford RS200 and Lancia Delta S4.

Huh, you need an education, this one of the stupidest statements I have seen on here, Audi?????? “. ..Crickets,
I work on 959’s every day….
Use to build urquattros for Audi sport…..

You need to go back to school, I assume you are a young guy that has no knowledge of what you are talking about, hence the reference to mindedness Japanese cars I am sure you grew up with watching “the Fast and Furious” as a teenager.
Poorly written article, by someone with only “google” and no experience.

William Moon
William Moon(@bmoon1635)
5 years ago

Ugly stick. Trumps the Mondial for worst styling ever.

Simon Laudati
Simon Laudati(@simon-laudati)
5 years ago

Terrible styling

Guitar Slinger
Guitar Slinger(@gtrslngr)
6 years ago

Seriously Banovsky ? You actually believe this tripe ? Gee … I wonder who might of come up with an AWD sports car before Ferrari got off its lazy ( censored ) and ever even thought about doing so ? Hmmmn …

Porsche .. with the 959

Audi .. with the Group S concept [ that later led to the R8 as well as Audi’s purchasing of Lamborghini … they had the platform and needed an outlet to use it ]

Toyota — with again the Group S MR2 concept

etc etc etc .

Oh …. and while we’re at let … lets take a trip to the Department of Corrections when it come to this supposedly running Ferrari concept . Fact is … it never did . Fact is … it never even so much as turned a wheel . It was .. a Pie in the Sky misadventure never destined to see the light of day bringing nothing new to the table including the use of Aluminum .. a technique that had been used multiple times previously dating all the way back to the 70’s in both race cars as well as road car concepts

Honestly Banovsky … don’t you think you’re taking this whole Ferrari Worship / True Believer thing a bit too far to the point of Revisionist History making ?

Karl Muth
Karl Muth(@karlmuth)
6 years ago

This article discusses sports cars. And all-wheel-drive. And the 1980’s. And makes no mention of the Audi Turbo Quattro Coupe (Ur Quattro). How is that even possible?!

Xavier Melendez
Xavier Melendez(@xmelendez)
6 years ago
Reply to  Karl Muth

Yup, you’re right on the money Karl. Audi completely owned the all wheel drive (4 wheel drive?) space thanks to its incredible run in motorsports with the Quattro in Group B Rally and other forms of racing. Porsche was also active in this space with their venerable 959. That all said, I believe the author is making the point of the specific drivetrain and chassis configuration, specifically 4 wheel drive with a mid-engine powertrain.

Bryan Dickerson
Bryan Dickerson(@pdxbryan)
6 years ago

I think this was actually an Acura test mule camouflaged with Ferrari badges. Can you imagine the law suit? It’s interesting how this and the NSX have all the same basic design cues but the Acura is so much better looking.

Halldór Björn Halldórsson
Halldór Björn Halldórsson(@hbh)
6 years ago

Well, it’s hard not to notice the similarities between the 4RM and the NSX. I find it hard to believe that that’s just a coincidence.

Peter Ferri
Peter Ferri(@volumevancouver)
6 years ago

Ugly af. I’d still drive it though.

Ted Leithart
Ted Leithart(@fb_10208293080589815)
6 years ago

I always thought these were test mules for the 4WD version of the 288GTO and the Lancia 037